This is the most common question from the field of gynecology, which can be found on the Internet, and it is safe to say that in the lives of most people it was the cause of a period of sleepless nights. I have already made several attempts to give a detailed explanation on this issue, but still a full understanding, alas, no. Let’s start with the technical side of the issue.
So, to become pregnant, the egg must fertilize the sperm, and there are a number of nuances: the egg lives on average 48 hours, sperm – 72 hours. Not every menstrual cycle is ovulation, not every egg is equally complete, that is, capable of fertilization. There is a situation when the egg is defective, and as a result the embryo dies within a few days. For fertilization of an egg it is necessary to work not one sperm, and hundreds. About three hundred sperm actively dissolve the shell of the egg-falls inside one, and the shell immediately becomes impenetrable to others. Like an egg, a failed sperm may also be defective, and then a full embryo will not work again, and the pregnancy will not set foot. What does it all mean? Even if “everything happened inside”, it is impossible to predict the onset of pregnancy until the delay occurs, so countless questions “could I get pregnant?”before the delay of monthly doctors ask pointless, as the gift of clairvoyance with a medical diploma in the load is not given. Once again, even if you had ovulation on the day of sexual intercourse, and the entire portion of sperm got into you – until there is a delay, nothing will be learned, because even if the egg was fertilized, the resulting embryo may be defective and die before menstruation or on the day of its beginning.
To fertilize the egg, about 300 sperm dissolve the shell of the egg, but only one falls inside. And if it turns out to be defective, the pregnancy will not develop.
For a full understanding once again, point out the conditions for pregnancy: should occur ovulation (the release of an egg from the follicle), and the resulting egg must be Mature and complete. At least 300-400 sperm should “attack” the egg and begin to dissolve its shell. Randomly failed, the sperm needs to be complete. And of course, in the body of a woman should work properly all the organs and systems that ensure the beginning of pregnancy, for example, passable and functional fallopian tubes, not damaged uterus, etc.
Until the appearance of the delay of menstruation to talk about the onset of pregnancy is meaningless. There are no indirect signs.
I hope that the described sacrament of pregnancy will allow to some extent to reduce the passions around the various” signs ” of pregnancy, which begins to feel a woman after unprotected sexual intercourse even before the delay of menstruation. Tense and agitated body begins to “draw” a lot of different ” signs “of conception occurred: tingling, sipping,” tickling”,” stirring”, abdominal pain, nausea, tension in the mammary glands, the appearance of bloody secretions. All these feelings have nothing to do with pregnancy and are nothing more than a figment of the imagination. Once again, until there was a delay in menstruation, it is impossible to talk about the onset of pregnancy. Moreover, the pregnancy may be interrupted in the first days of delay, which will manifest itself more abundant and painful menstruation in the event that the resulting embryo was with a serious defect. This, for example, often happens when planning a pregnancy, when for several months, despite regular sex life and the absence of infertility factors, pregnancy does not occur. The absence of pregnancy in this case may be due to the fact that from cycle to cycle it is impossible to make a quality embryo.
Variants of the “threat” of sexual intercourse a lot. There is simply unprotected sexual intercourse – so, passion covered, and sailed: “sorry, could not resist.” There is an interrupted sexual intercourse, which has two options: dangerous and safe. In the dangerous variant, the penis is removed from the vagina at the time of ejaculation or, as it seems to the man, a second before it, but often it is not. A man may not feel the first wave of ejaculation, and it remains in the vagina; although visual inspection of both partners seems to confirm the success of the enterprise, the first portion of sperm can be insidiously in the vagina. The safe option of interrupted sexual intercourse implies that after removing the penis, it still takes a certain amount of time and appropriate actions for the ejaculation process to begin. The main thing is that if the second sexual act is supposed, the man needs to urinate after the first ejaculation, because if he does not, active sperm can be released throughout the next sexual act. There is an opinion that sperm can be contained in the lubricant released from the penis during sexual intercourse, but even if it can be (I have not been able to find scientific data on this matter), their number is clearly not enough for fertilization of the egg, as quite a lot of sperm die already in the aggressive environment of the vagina, cervix and uterus itself on the way to the fallopian tube, where they are waiting for the egg.
There are two types of interrupted sexual intercourse-dangerous and safe.
Error in condom use. Most often, the condom breaks or flies due to the fact that it was incorrectly worn. It is important in the beginning to squeeze your fingers (or lips – if you have experience) sperm (a small pocket at the top), so that it does not remain air. In this case, the condom will completely grasp the penis, will not be stretched and, accordingly, tear or slide. The condom itself should be rolled to the base of the penis, not half its length. And of course, you need to select the product in size and quality. If you find that the condom fell off or broke, and it has sperm – this situation can be equated to getting sperm into the vagina. The entry of sperm into the vulva (when interrupted intercourse or torn condom) also potentially can be equated to the entry of sperm into the vagina, as “leaking” a small amount of sperm, taking into account anatomic features of female genital organs full it is impossible to control.
Pick up condoms in size and quality!
It is difficult to assess the situation from the point of view of the potential danger of pregnancy, if we are talking about sperm, got on hands with the subsequent use of these hands to stimulate the external genitals and introduce them into the vagina. Let me remind you that for fertilization of the egg you need more than one sperm, and quite a large part of the sperm caught in the vagina dies in it. In other words, the amount of sperm that comes in matters. Since you can not reliably estimate how much sperm was on your hands or your partner’s hands – all such situations should be considered as potentially dangerous regardless of what was the “affected area” of sperm of your body parts.
For the onset of pregnancy is key to the amount of sperm trapped inside. In the lubricant released in men during sexual intercourse, it is clearly not enough.
Often I have to deal with the situation arising from a rather loving women. Giving me this question: if I have sexual intercourse with one man happened on the 12th day of the cycle, and the other at 15, if I get pregnant, then who is likely this pregnancy? Alas, it is impossible to determine: sperm can live a few days, and different men, they can be quite different in activity, so this “spermomax” at the initial stage of the investigation is not subject. Only a genetic paternity examination, which can be carried out after the birth of the child, will make the final clarity.
Now let’s go directly to what to do if, according to the conditions described above, you had a dangerous sexual intercourse. The first thing to start with is to ask yourself: what is your cycle day? The days of the menstrual cycle are counted from the first day of the last menstruation, that is, from the day you started menstruating. This is most important for a regular cycle (with an error of 1-3 days). It is believed that 10 days around the day of ovulation will be dangerous, that is, with a 28-day cycle from the 9th to the 19th day of the cycle-dangerous days. The other days are not quite safe, as the risk of pregnancy in these days is significantly less and is about 5 %. The fact is that under the influence of various circumstances (stress, disease, climate change, etc.), the time of ovulation can shift, these reasons can cause the facts of pregnancy, even when sexual intercourse was during menstruation or on the eve of menstruation.
“Dangerous” days for pregnancy are considered 10 days around the day of ovulation. With a 28-day cycle, it will be from the 9th to the 19th days of the cycle. The countdown is from the 1st day of menstruation.
The safest days are considered to be closer to the end of the cycle, that is, to the beginning of menstruation, as the egg lives only 24-48 hours after ovulation.
When an irregular cycle is more complicated. The fact that the cycle is irregular most often indicates that ovulation does not occur or occurs rarely and quite unpredictably. In such conditions to speak about safe or dangerous days not account for. Therefore, all days should be considered as potentially dangerous and appropriate measures should be taken.
What measures can be taken? For this purpose there are drugs of emergency contraception. On the market there are three: Postinor, escapel and ginepreto. I’ve listed them in ascending order of effectiveness, that is, ginepreto the most reliable, but it does not provide 100 % result. It can be taken within 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse. In General, it is quite safe, but often use this method is not worth it.
So, if you according to my descriptions above came to the conclusion that you had a dangerous situation (dangerous days during a regular cycle or any day the irregular), it is necessary to take measures of emergency contraception, in particular ginepreto.
After taking the drug, the monthly may come earlier, on time or there may be a slight delay.
Even if you have taken measures of emergency contraception, but there was a delay or monthly were somehow strange (sparse or short), it is necessary to make a pregnancy test. With an irregular cycle, the test should be done in 20-25 days, if the monthly did not begin earlier.