So, first I will explain the essence of the menstrual cycle: imagine two teams, let’s call them “right ovary” and “left ovary”, which begin to play the game for a while. From each team at stake are selected for 10-15 players, which is distributed on the designer, from which you can collect man. Everyone starts to collect, and at some point one of the players begins to collect man faster than anyone. At this point, all the other players throw their unfinished men and help this leader finish. When the man is collected, the remaining players are eliminated from the game, and the winner is one for a limited time puts this man on sale. At the same time, the leader instead of assembling the man begins alone to prepare it for sale – makes out the packaging and conducts an active advertising campaign. Further events depend on whether the buyer came or not and whether he bought this man. If no one is interested in the little man, the leader finishes the game, and the man, along with all the packages and flyers thrown into the trash. This is where the game ends. In the case of purchase man game continues, and the leader supports the buyer for some time until the buyer can not do without the support of the leader. After that, the leader leaves the game.
The whole process of the menstrual cycle is a kind of game, where events develop one after another and are interconnected.
Now, from this rather abstract image, let’s move directly to what happens in the ovary during the menstrual cycle. At the very beginning of the cycle in both ovaries at the same time begins to grow a lot of follicles. After a few days, one of them breaks forward and begins to grow faster: as soon as this happens, the rest of the follicles slow down growth and begin reverse development. By the middle of the cycle, the dominant follicle reaches a size of 20-22 mm and bursts. This process is called ovulation. Some women may feel it in the form of pain that occurs in the lower abdomen. As a result of ovulation, an egg comes out of the ovary, and it immediately catches the fallopian tube; remember, she has a special “baseball glove”. On the site of the burst follicle, a temporary gland is formed, which is called the yellow body. This gland begins to produce a special female sex hormone – progesterone, which for 12-14 days prepares the whole body for pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the yellow body folds its work, and menstruation begins. If pregnancy occurred, the corpus luteum runs until the 16th week of pregnancy and only after that transfers its functions to the placenta.
The yellow body is a temporary gland that produces the hormone progesterone.
As you can see, the events within the menstrual cycle are actually like a game round: all events develop one after another and are related. The main goal is to get the egg and move it into the fallopian tube, where it will wait 48 hours for sperm, and in the meantime to create conditions for everything to be ready for pregnancy, if it happens. Thus, the events in the menstrual cycle are divided into two parts, in fact, this division and passes through the middle of the cycle, that is, the first half of the cycle on one task, the second – on the second. During the first half of the cycle, many follicles struggle for the opportunity to be realized, and after the selection of one dominant follicle, its immature egg Matures and comes out to meet with sperm. This whole process is accompanied by the production of the main female hormone – estradiol, which grows in the uterus endometrium (mucous membrane), increases the size of the uterus, accumulates in the cervical canal secret, which will allow sperm to easily penetrate inside. Estradiol is produced by growing follicles, by the way, by converting from male sex hormones, that is, first in the female body, male sex hormones are synthesized, and only then they turn into female.
The essence of the second phase is to prepare for a possible pregnancy. Under the influence of progesterone, which produces the yellow body, the whole body changes, but primarily the mucous membrane of the uterus – the endometrium. It ceases to grow in thickness, and it actively accumulates nutrients and improves blood supply, that is, all preparing to take the fertilized egg. Changes in the body in the second phase of the cycle, some of you may be familiar: there is swelling, increases and sore Breasts, pimples may appear, and, of course, all the other “charms” of premenstrual syndrome.
In the second phase of the cycle, the body prepares for pregnancy. There are swelling and PMS.
If pregnancy has not occurred, the yellow body stops working, and the blood level of progesterone drops sharply. This leads to the fact that the vessels sensitive to this hormone, supplying the endometrium with blood, spasm, which triggers the rejection of this mucosa, that is, the process of menstruation. Reducing the level of progesterone affects the muscle layer of the uterus. Progesterone has a relaxing effect on it, and therefore, when its concentration in the blood falls, the muscles begin to contract, pushing the menstrual secretions out.
Regulates all processes of the menstrual cycle pulse generator GnRH, as well as hormones FSH and LH.
Obviously, all these complex processes can not occur without the participation of the brain, which is known to be responsible for everything. The menstrual cycle has one Director and two Deputy Directors, each responsible for their own phase of the cycle. Director name pulse generator of GnRH, and zamdirektora – FSH, respectively, for the first phase of the cycle and LH is back for a second. You probably came across these names when your doctor sent you to take “hormone tests.” I think that for the future of storytelling is to decipher the names of our heroes that allow a better understanding of their role.
FSH is a follicle-stimulating hormone, that is, a hormone that stimulates follicle growth in the ovaries at the very beginning of the cycle. The most important stimulus for its secretion is a low level of estradiol – the main female sex hormone produced by the ovaries. Here everything is obvious: at the beginning of the cycle the follicles do not grow, so hormones are not produced; in response, the production of FSH increases. Now you, by the way, it will be clear how the doctor assesses the beginning of menopause is a bunch of hormones FSH and estradiol. If the ovaries have finished their work and can not produce estradiol, the blood will increase the level of FSH, which is trying to get a response from the ovaries, and the level of estradiol will remain low. As you can see, everything is clear and no magic. Normally, in response to FSH, follicle growth begins, which is accompanied by an increase in estradiol production, which, in turn, gradually reduces the production of FSH at the time of ovulation.
The pulse generator is the “Director” of the entire menstrual cycle. Your reproductive function directly depends on its resistance to external factors.
LG – luteinizirutee hormone. Its main task is to support the work of the yellow body, and it, in fact, provides the onset of ovulation. At the moment when the dominant follicle reaches a size of 20-22 mm, there is a sharp increase in LH, as a result of the follicle is torn, and the egg comes out. After that, LH supports the work formed on the site of the burst follicle of the corpus luteum, stimulating their production of the second female hormone – progesterone. If pregnancy has not occurred, the level of LH decreases, respectively, the yellow body stops working, the concentration of progesterone in the blood drops, there is a spasm of the vessels that supply the endometrium with blood, and its rejection begins, that is, menstruation.
It is time to get acquainted with the Director of the menstrual cycle – pulse generator GnRH. In this title it is necessary to decipher only the last part of “GnRH” – gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which translates into human language as “hormone that regulates the production of FSH and LH”.
Pulse generator – an area in the brain that works as a metronome. It can produce pulses once every 60 or 90 minutes. With frequent impulses (once in 60 minutes) from the pituitary gland, FSH is released, with more rare – LH. So he regulates the menstrual cycle, that is, in fact, works as a conductor. Only this conductor is different for all women, and it differs in the degree of its sensitivity to various external influences. Here it is important to explain, and perhaps you already know that the regularity of the menstrual cycle can be influenced by many external factors: stress, active sports, especially running, reduction or, conversely, weight gain, climate change, etc. All these external factors disrupt the work of the pulse generator, which is why all the other processes in the cycle are already straying. It is the resistance of the pulse generator to the external adverse factors varies in different women. For example, it is worth one to go through a nervous session at the University – and the monthly disappear, and the other in combat retains a regular cycle. I think many of you have noticed similar problems, especially after a sharp change of climate or the beginning of hard training in the gym.
For the body, the system of reproduction is the most unnecessary in difficult conditions.
Such a mechanism is a biological expediency. If the brain evaluates the state of the body as “bad”, the most unnecessary system for survival at the moment – the system of reproduction. The logic is quite simple: all the forces should be directed to survival, and spend them on creating a new person in such conditions is irrational, so the “opportunity to get pregnant” in such a situation is turned off. Thus, if you have lost before regular monthly, of course, first you need to do a pregnancy test, and if it is negative, start remembering what has changed in your life recently: stress, sports, weight gain or weight loss, climate change, changes in the nature of nutrition, etc. most Often you will be able to find the cause yourself and already come to the doctor not in such an exciting state, as it happens in the presence of such problems.
The regularity of the cycle cycle can be affected by stress, sports, weight and climate.
Now, when you imagine how the menstrual cycle is regulated, and most importantly, what determines the state of the endometrium, it will be easy to explain such events that often occur in the life of a woman, such as small spotting during menstruation, an earlier start of menstruation or, conversely, the delay of menstruation. In General, around menstruation there are quite a few nuances that disturb most women throughout their reproductive life, so below are the answers to the most common questions.