The most common reason for women to the gynecologist are “bad” selection, but in the case of other issues gynecologists almost always start with the smears and tests for infection, which leads to the fact that even a perfectly healthy patient the result discovers some infections. Let’s understand.
Every woman should have vaginal discharge, because that’s how it cleanses itself and protects against external potential threats in the form of pathogens.
The average volume of secretions is about a teaspoon per day, but there may be allowable individual fluctuations. Affect the volume of normal secretions can occur pregnancy, emotional state, hormonal disorders (irregular menstrual cycle, diabetes, thyroid disease), changes in body weight in the direction of both increase and decrease, climate change, frequency of sexual activity, sports.
Discharge is the protection of the vagina from pathogens.
The main characteristics of the correct discharge: white, mucous, odorless or with a slight sour-milk smell.
With a regular cycle, the selections change depending on the phase of the cycle:
• after menstruation – white liquid, not enough of them;
- closer to the middle of the cycle – similar to egg white;
- after ovulation – dairy;
• closer to month may appear small lumps and an itch.
If you take contraceptives or you have an irregular cycle, the discharge will not change, there may be more of them, and they are closer in appearance to diluted milk.
Incorrect selections include:
• odor (fish, rotten, sweet);
- color (yellow, greenish, gray);
- consistency (thick, curd, foamy, watery, creamy).
The main companion of bad secretions is the local reaction of the mucous membrane: itching, burning, irritation and discomfort, pain when urinating (during the whole act, not at the end), swelling, redness, the presence of bubbles or ulcers, pain and discomfort during sexual life.
If there is unusual discharge, but there is no these symptoms, perhaps the color and consistency changed for another reason. For example, the yellow spectrum of secretions – from pale yellow to dark brown and even black-as well as green shades up to brown tones-may indicate the presence of a small amount of blood in the secretions. The color of the hue is associated with the oxidation of iron in the hemoglobin of red blood cells in the acidic environment of the vagina and the degree of dilution of blood by white secretions. Such discharge comes after your period or a few days before her. The main thing-there are no local reactions!
The yellow spectrum of secretions may indicate the presence of a small amount of blood. It’s not always a sign of inflammation.
Blood in the secretions (or brown discharge) outside menstruation is most often a manifestation of the disease (normally may be in small quantities against the background of hormonal contraceptives). What to do? Gynecologist and ultrasound examination is required. In the middle of the cycle may normally be small bloody discharge, accompanying ovulation, but still need to check. Discharge before and after menstruation episodically may be normal, but the presence of long and permanent discharge-a sign of the disease (endometriosis, polyps, etc.).
The main diseases in which the discharge changes:
• bright white cheesy discharge, itching – thrush;
- gray-white discharge with the smell of fish or rotten meat-bacterial vaginosis;
- yellowish discharge of a thick consistency with a sweet smell-aerobic vaginitis;
• a watery, yellowish frothy discharge with an unpleasant odor + itchy + painful urination + pain with intercourse – trichomoniasis;
- a similar pattern, but the discharge is thicker and there are shades of green + abdominal pain-gonorrhea (50% may be asymptomatic).
Remember: not all altered discharge + itching = thrush, that is, without tests, on the eye, self-diagnosis is not necessary and take drugs from thrush should not be.
Combined candles (terzhinan, polizhinaks) can reduce symptoms, but not cure disease. It’s important! So is hexicon, which is essentially a simple antiseptic. They can be prescribed after taking tests to obtain results, after the main treatment is prescribed.
The “gold standard” of diagnostics of a condition of the vagina is a combination of the usual smear on flora and quantitative composition of the vaginal microflora: familar-17 (Invitro) or florianus (CMD). The CMD laboratory has a comprehensive analysis number 310004, which includes all of the above, including STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis).
Contribute to the violation of flora antibiotics, stress (emotional, in response to hypothermia, lack of sleep, fatigue), vaginal showers, cunnilingus, the introduction of fingers into the vagina during Masturbation, the use of saliva as a lubricant, the use of “toys”, anal sex, especially the introduction of the penis from the rectum into the vagina.
Algorithm of estimation of the selections:
- first of all, evaluate the smell: the smell is, it is unpleasant-the problem is; no smell or it is fermented milk-no problems;
- color: different from white and there are itching, burning and other local symptoms-a problem with flora; there are no additional symptoms-most likely it’s blood – in addition to the gynecologist’s examination, an ultrasound and a cytological smear are required;
• consistency: recall phase of the cycle (monophasic contraceptives phases of the cycle there). Little and mucous membranes – the beginning of the cycle, transparent, viscous – middle, milk – the second phase. Thick, creamy, foamy, watery-there is a problem with flora. If some allocations are non-white (greenish, yellowish), but no local symptoms, but PAP smear normal, blood color changed – look for the cause (pathology of the cervix, a polyp, endometriosis, etc.).
If there was a long break in sexual life, after the first sexual intercourse, even with a condom, the discharge may change and there may be unpleasant sensations when urinating – most often, it is a reaction to sexual intercourse after a break, which takes place independently for a couple of days, but can often lead to the development of bacterial vaginosis. If not passed within two days, this needs to be tested: familar + smear or florians + DAB.
What can prevent the change of flora in the vagina?
• Abstain from vaginal showers (inside the vagina do not need to wash), all traffic for hygiene only from front to back; less likely to wear thongs.
• In General, rarely wear underwear (need to sleep without linen) – in the vagina have to have air, as oxygen is essential for Lactobacillus – your main defenders.
- Change tampons and/or pads more often; do not use tampons for scant bloody discharge.